“Viewed freely, English Language is the accretion and growth of every dialect, race, and range of time, and is both the free and compacted composition of all” – Walt Whitman
Students are expected to have acquired a reasonable degree of language proficiency in English by the time they come to class XI, and the two year CBSE defined English Core course at this stage aims essentially at promoting higher order language skills. For a large number of students the Senior Secondary stage is a preparation for the university where a fairly high degree of proficiency in English may be required. But for another large group, this stage may be a preparation for entry in to the world of work. The English core course caters to both groups by promoting the language skills required for academic study as well as the language skills required for the work place.
The general objectives of teaching English core component at this stage are to develop greater confidence and proficiency in the use of language skills necessary of social and academic purposes, to build communicative confidence in various registers of English, to promote advanced language skills with an aim to develop the abilities of reasoning, drawing inferences etc. through meaningful activities, to develop ability and knowledge required in order to engage in independent reflection and enquiry and to develop the capacity to appreciate literary use of English and also use English creatively and imaginatively. Therefore, the Core component is a gentle combination of comprehension, note –making, advanced writing skills, chosen short literary pieces and extended reading text (novel).
At the end of this stage learners are enabled to read and comprehend extended texts in genres like fiction, science fiction, drama, poetry, biography, autobiography, travel and sports literature etc. They are also enabled to do text-based writing, writing expository/ argumentative essays, formal/informal letters and applications for different purposes, items related to work place like notices, advertisements, summaries, taking/making notes etc. The Core course also draws upon the language items suggested at Secondary level and delves deeper into their usage and functions. Usage of different tense forms for different kinds of narration, use of passive forms in formal and innovative writings, converting one kind of sentence/clause into a different kind of structure, items to exemplify stylistic variations in different discourses, use of modal auxiliaries based on semantic considerations and similar other functions thus find place seamlessly in the English Core Course.
“Mathematics is, I believe, the chief source of the belief in eternal and exact truth, as well as a sensible intelligible world. “— Bertrand Russell
Class XI topics include: Introduction to relations and functions ,Trigonometric functions of sum and difference of two angles , trigonometric equations . Principle of Mathematical Induction. Complex Numbers and Quadratic Equations. Algebraic and graphical solution of linear inequalities in one and two variables Permutations and combinations. Binomial Theorem for Positive Integral Indices . Arithmetic progression , geometric progression , sum to n terms of special series . Straight lines. Standard equations and simple properties of circles ,parabola, ellipse and hyperbola. Introduction to three dimensional geometry. Limits and introduction to derivatives. mathematical reasoning. statistics and probability Measures of dispersion: Range, mean deviation, variance and standard deviation of ungrouped/grouped data. Probability of an event, probability of 'not', 'and' and 'or' events.
CLASS XII topics include: Types of relations and functions , composition of functions and invertible function ,binary operations . Properties of inverse trigonometric functions. Matrices and Determinants Continuity , differentiability , Application of Derivatives . Methods of integration , evaluation of definite integrals by substitution , some properties of definite integrals , area under simple curves , area between two curves .Differential equations. Formulating and solving linear programming problem graphically Probability (conditional probability , multiplication theorem on probability , independent events , Bayes' Theorem , random variables and its probability distributions , Bernoulli Trials and Binomial Distribution
Senior Secondary is the most crucial stage of school education because at this juncture specialized discipline-based content -oriented courses are introduced. Students reach this stage after 10 years of general education and opt for Physics, Chemistry & Biology with a purpose of pursuing careers in basic sciences or professional courses like medicine, engineering, technology. They study courses in applied areas of science and technology at tertiary level.
The broad objectives of teaching Physics, Chemistry & Biology are to provide learners with sufficient conceptual background which will help them meet the challenges of academic and professional courses after the senior secondary stage; to equip them with a high quality education which prepares students for further study and research; to familiarize the students with the world in which they live and to bring about an understanding of the impact of science on everyday life; to develop certain abilities- sense a problem, organize & interpret, discuss & express; promote understanding of basic facts and concepts in line with other disciplines of science such as Astronomy, Geology, & Engineering; to equip students to face various challenges related to health, nutrition, environment, population, weather, industries and agriculture.
In XI & XII, the entire syllabus of Chemistry consists of: Inorganic chemistry, Physical chemistry, Organic Chemistry, Analytical Chemistry, Environmental Chemistry & Chemistry in everyday life.
It includes Diversity in living world, Structural organization in animals and plants, Cell: Structure and function, Plant physiology, Human Physiology, Reproduction, Genetics and Evolution, Biology and Human Welfare, Biotechnology and its Applications, Ecology and Environment.
It teaches Gravitation, Laws of motion, Kinematics, Thermodynamics, Work energy & power, Ray optics, Wave optics , Current electricity, communication system, alternating current, moving charges, magnetism, atom & nuclei electromagnetic induction, electric charge etc
Psychology is a science that studies mental processes, personal experiences and behavior, in different contexts. A student of class XI gets to know about the brain and mind concept, the biological basis of human behaviour and human development. Students learn about different branches of Psychology, particularly, the ‘Gestalt Psychology’ which refers to the idea that "The whole is greater than the sum of its parts." How applicable it is in the present world where we judge people on our little experiences with them, or by hearing about them while the reality could be entirely opposite! The students of Psychology read about how we pay attention to people or objects, perceive them and form opinions about them. The saying- there are three truths- your truth, my truth and THE Truth stands true when the subject proceeds to chapters like perception, thinking, motivation and emotion. Nevertheless, the subject briefs them about learning, learning patterns as well as conflict and conflict resolution strategies. They also learn about positive thinking, improving memory and managing negative emotions.
Psychology in standard XII deals with an in-depth study about individual differences, intelligence, personality etc. The extensive knowledge of stress and stress management make them capable to balance themselves in times of hardships; for example managing their own examination anxieties. It is crucial to learn about human behaviour in groups and about social norms; how we have biases and how exactly do we blame others for their mistakes and what happens when a person performs in presence of others and along with others. It also deals with social influences, cultures, technological intelligence, environment and life. The present syllabus not only trains the students in understanding the norms of the society but also makes them aware about a number of mental disorders like depression, mania, bipolar disorder, schizophrenia or eating disorders. The students also learn about various counseling skills, communication process and different types of psychotherapy..
Accountancy in class XI concerns basic rules and principles governing the discipline. Students will be introduced to the various stages of financial accounting; they will learn the format of recording and classifying various monetary transactions and this will help them to learn management and analysis of financial statements of the sole proprietor form of business identity.
In class XII students will be introduced to the accounting of Partnerships and Companies. They will learn the various aspects of Partnership in business and the reconstitution of partnership firms. They will also learn various ratios which will increase their understanding regarding the financial viability of business and its various short and long term solvency indicators. Analysis of cash through cash flow statement will help them judge the various ways of inflow and outflow of cash in business.
The course in Business Studies at +2 stage of Senior Secondary Education starts from class XI. In class XI the basic understanding of Business, Trade and Industry is imparted to the students, followed by the basics of management and marketing in class XII.
The main objective of business studies is to motivate a larger percentage of students towards self employment, thereby reducing the number of students seeking jobs each year in a limited job market. Thus Business Studies can help students develop an entrepreneurial aptitude, which is an invaluable asset for their personal development and for the development of the economy of India.
Students studying Geography in Grade XI- XII will assimilate key concepts, terminology and core principles of Geography. They will be able to describe locations and correlate geographical perspectives; describe and interpret spatial pattern features on a thematic map; understand the processes and patterns of the spatial arrangement of natural features as well as human aspects and phenomena on the earth's surface; analyze the inter-relationship between physical and human environments; utilize such knowledge in reflecting on issues related to community and apply geographical knowledge and methods of inquiry to emerging situations or problems at different levels-local, regional, national and global; develop geographical skills relating to collection, processing and analysis of spatial data/ information and preparation of reports including maps and graphs and use of computers where ever possible; and to be sensitive to all such issues.
The curriculum in class XI is structured around the major themes of world history. The themes have been selected so as to focus on important developments in different spheres- political, social, cultural and economic. Through the study of these themes students will acquire a sense of the wider historical processes as well as an idea of the specific debates around them. The themes of World History will familiarize the learner with ways of reconstructing human social evolution which can be used to understand early societies. It will also familiarize the learner with the nature of early urban centers; help ability to meaningfully discuss whether writing is significant as a marker of civilization and understand the history of major world empires. The themes cover the history of the rise of Islamic empires in the Afro-Asian territories and its implications for economy and society. It will also develop learners’ view point of the ‘Crusades’. The learners will absorb the variety of nomadic societies and their institutions. The themes will introduce the debate around the idea of 'Renaissance'; changes in the European economy that led to the voyages which resulted in the slave trade and will also understand what the meaning of these “discoveries” is. This will initiate students to the debate about the industrial revolution and show how notions like 'modernization' need to be critically assessed.
In class XII the focus shifts to a detailed study of some themes in Ancient, Medieval and Modern Indian history, although the attempt is to soften the distinction between what is conventionally termed as ancient, medieval and modern. The object would be to study a set of these themes in some detail and depth rather than surveying the entire chronological span of Indian history.
In Ancient History the learner is exposed to the story of civilization through inscriptions, coins etc. It familiarizes the learner with political, social and religious history through examples taken from different sources viz. Mahabharata, life of Buddha, Mahavira, and Ashoka.
In Medieval History the themes enable the learner to discuss various issues related to the major economic and religious developments in India; developments in agrarian relations; how to supplement official documents with other historical sources; the ways in which architecture can be analyzed to reconstruct history; ways of analyzing devotional literature as sources of history; how travelers' accounts can be used as sources of social history and how colonialism affected zamindars, peasants and artisans.
In Modern History the learner is familiarized with the history of modern urban centres; how urban history can be written by drawing on different types of sources; significant elements of the Nationalist Movement and the nature of Gandhian leadership. It also discusses the last decade of the national movement, the growth of communalism, the story of partition and the framing of the constitution.
Indian Constitution at Work
The course helps students understand the historical processes and the circumstances in which the Constitution was drafted. They become familiar with the diverse visions that guided the makers of the Indian Constitution, identify certain key features of the Constitution , compare these to other constitutions in the world and analyze the ways in which the provisions of the Constitution have worked in real political life. The students also develop a deep insight about the Fundamental Rights and Duties mentioned in the Indian Constitution.
The main objective of the course is to introduce students to some of the important ideas and concepts which form a part of the living tradition of political thought in the world. Concepts like freedom, equality, rights and nationalism are used in everyday life not only by politicians and governments but by all of us. The students develop the skills for logical reasoning and abstraction, to inculcate attention to and respect for viewpoints other than one's own, introduce students to the different political thinkers in relation to a concept and in everyday social life, enable students to meaningfully participate in and develop internal concerns of the political life that surrounds them, encourage the students to analyze any unexamined prejudices that one may have inherited.
Contemporary World Politics
This course is designed to help the students understand the political scenario of contemporary world. It starts with making them familiar with the important political events and processes that mark the post cold war era and perpetuates consciousness about the global events and processes that shape our everyday lives. The course strengthens students’ capacity for analyzing contemporary developments in a historical perspective.
Politics in India after Independence
This course familiarizes the students with some of the key political events and figures in the post independence era. Emphasis is placed on developing skills of political analysis through an understanding of events and processes of recent history and capacity to link macro processes with micro situations in one’s life. The students are encouraged to analyze the contemporary Indian political scenario by developing a historical perspective for the same. Furthermore, the students get acquainted with the recent political trends in India.
At the senior secondary stage CBSE curriculum is followed where pupils are offered Computer Science as optional subject for Science Stream and Informatics Practices as optional subject in all 3 streams viz. Science, Commerce & Humanities. The competencies developed amongst pupils are sound knowledge of computer system, understand of the basic concept of networking and communication technology, problem solving, familiarity with application of development process using simple IDEs, ability to use, develop and debug programs independently, database handling, ability to store and retrieve data using an RDBMS.
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